Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental and behavioral disorder in which a person has trouble paying attention and focusing on tasks. It may begin in early childhood and can continue into adulthood. Without treatment, ADHD can cause problems at home, school, work, and with relationships. ADHD was once called attention deficit disorder (ADD).

The symptoms of ADHD include inattention, impulsiveness (acting without thinking) and hyperactivity that are inappropriate for a person's age level.

ADHD occurs more often in males than in females, and behaviors can be different in boys and girls, generally there is three subtypes of ADHD :

  • Predominantly inattentive

  • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive. 

  • Combined. The most common type this is a mix of inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms.

Symptoms of children who have ADHD  Predominantly Inattention often:

  • Are easily distracted by sights and sounds in their environment so they face difficulties in finishing a task or game.
  • Are unable to concentrate on details for long periods of time on low stimulation tasks like homework’s so they make careless mistakes.
  • Are restless and impulsive.
  • Have a tendency to daydream.
  • Appear not to listen, even when spoken to directly

 

Symptoms of Children who have ADHD  with Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive :

  • Have difficulty staying seated in one place like class room or any closed place.

  • Be on the go, in constant motion.

  • Run around or climb in situations when it's not appropriate.

  • Have trouble playing or doing an activity quietly.

  • Talk too much.

  • Have difficulty waiting for his or her turn.

    Symptoms of ADHD in adults and children vary by individual and range from mild to severe depends on the severity of symptoms.

    Cause of ADHD

    The exact cause of ADHD is unknown. The theories state that there are changes in the brains of people with the ADHD. It is not caused by home or school situations or by poor parenting.

    Diagnosis:

     There is no single test used to diagnose ADHD. It is diagnosed after a child has shown some or all of symptoms of ADHD on a regular basis for more than 6 months. The diagnosis of ADHD involves the gathering of information from several sources, including school, caregivers and parents. A specialist in childhood development disorders will consider how a child's behavior compares with that of other children the same age. The specialist will also do a physical exam to look for any medical problems that may affect a child's behavior. ADHD in adults is diagnosed using a similar process.

    Treatment:

     Although there is no cure for ADHD, treatment can help control symptoms. There are several types of treatments available. some of the available options are called stimulant drugs that stimulate the secretion of certain neurotransmitters tht helps to control the symptoms  such as Amphetamines and Methylphenidates .

    Also antidepressants and drugs like Atomoxetine can be used but it works slower than stimulants do and may take several weeks before they take full effect. These may be good options if your child can't take stimulants because of health problems or if stimulants cause severe side effects.

  • Behavioral  therapy:

    Learning behavior management techniques is considered to be an essential part of any successful ADHD treatment program. Most experts agree that combining medication treatments with extended behavior management is the most effective way to manage ADHD in children and adolescents.